The Black Mangrove is characterized by its opposite leaves … The white mangrove is easily differentiated from other mangrove species by its leaves and root system. Most of those acres are in Everglades National Park. © 2020 The Nature Conservancy The effects of climate change on a species are even more difficult to discern. Coastal mangroves are protected in the Everglades National Park on the southern tip of Florida. Though estimates vary, there are at least 50 — and maybe up to 110 — mangrove species, ranging in … Besides providing shade and blocking views of U.S. 1 while you walk or bike down the trail, the mangroves are an important ecosystem in the Florida Keys. Donations are tax-deductible as allowed by law. Researchers look to high-resolution elevation data and projections from the UN climate panel for answers. Tiny brownish flowers are located at the terminal ends of the branches forming a seed cluster known as the button. [16] The loss of mangroves could therefore be detrimental to coastal communities exposed to increased storm surges. In Florida, Tampa Bay has lost 44% of its mangroves and marshes over the last 100 years. Most of Florida is sub-tropical, making it not ideal for mangroves, so the trees tend to be shorter and the leaves smaller in northern and central Florida than in tropical regions. Further inland is the black mangrove lacking prop roots, but does have Two glands are located at the apex of the petiole (leaf stalk) and excrete excess salts and extrafloral nectar.[1]. Due to the potential for the acceleration of sea level rise and increased storm severity in the future due to climate change, mangroves of southern Florida may be in jeopardy. *Mobile Terms & Conditions tolerant of the Florida mangroves. Estuaries and Coasts, 31(3), 477–491. (2000). These volunteers plant mangroves on the Blowing Rocks Preserve shoreline as part of their field trip. The red mangrove grows closest to open water. | [9] and studies show that mangroves in southern Florida expanded their territories 3.3 km inland since the 1940s. [8] Mangroves could be further threatened by storms if the return time of major storms exceeds reestablishment. Mangroves also produce 3.6 tons per acre of leaf litter per year, which benefit estuarine food chains. Branches of the mangroves act as bird rookeries and nesting areas for coastal wading birds including egrets, herons, cormorants and roseate spoonbills. doi:10.1029/2005GL024826. Black mangroves can regrow from roots after being killed back by a freeze, and are found by themselves a little further north, to Jacksonville on the east coast and along the Florida Panhandle on the Gulf coast. Florida mangrove plant communities covered an estimated 430,000 to 540,000 acres (1,700 to 2,200 km2) in Florida in 1981. Each type of mangroves grows in the salty water in abundance along Florida shorelines. Mangrove amazing facts Two thirds of the fish we eat spend part of their life in mangroves. The term "mangrove" does not signify a particular botanical relation, but rather is used to identify several species of salt-tolerant trees that thrive amidst the harsh growing conditions of the coast. Explore how we've evolved to tackle some of the world's greatest challenges. Mangrove forests stabilize the coastline, reducing erosion from storm surges, currents, waves, and tides. Unfortunately, that means many mangrove forests are dozed to make way for coastal development, sandy beaches and aquaculture (in particular, shrimp farming has led to large mangrove losses). Each type of mangroves grows in the salty water in abundance along Florida shorelines. doi:10.1007/s12237-008-9047-6. In addition, they can stand in soft, wet soil because of their strong roots. For example, they can grow in salty water because they are able to filter out the salt. Mangroves are important to the ecosystem too. From Whitewater Bay, a broad band of mangroves extends up the Gulf coast to Marco Island, including the Ten Thousand Islands. Once a favorable site is found there is an "obligate stranding period" before a tree emerges and begins to grow. The Florida mangroves ecoregion, of the mangrove forest biome, comprise an ecosystem along the coasts of the Florida peninsula, and the Florida Keys. The upper portion of Florida falls into a sub-tropical climate hindering mangrove growth there due to cold weather events such as freezing. This is an important ecosystem service as we face climate change. The Florida Keys Overseas Heritage Trail has many miles of lush mangrove forests. Mangroves are prevalent in tropical south Florida, but the plants have been moving farther north as climate change makes freezing weather less common. They are characterized by vertically erect aerating branches (pneumatophores) extending up to 20 cm above the soil. The overall hypothesis is that mangroves are vulnerable to climate change, which will affect this ecosystem via three main mechanisms: sea level rise, decreased cold weather events, and increased storm severity. Like mammals they are viviparious, bringing forth live young. With coastal challenges created by growing populations, burgeoning development, and climate change, risks to people and property from flooding and storm surge are on the rise. Important Facts about Mangroves Climate: mangroves are a tropical species intolerant of freezing temperatures. and by doing so protect coastlines. Consequences of Climate Change on the Ecogeomorphology of Coastal Wetlands. Privacy Statement Mcleod, E., & Salm, R. V. (2006). Instead of dormant seeds, they produce propagules that begin embryonic development while still attached to the tree and only release at the appropriate time into water. Valuing The Flood Risk Reduction Benefits of Florida’s Mangroves, Valuing the Flood Risk Reduction Benefits of Florida’s Mangroves. The study, Valuing The Flood Risk Reduction Benefits of Florida’s Mangroves, led by a team of scientists from the engineering, insurance, and conservation sectors, concludes that mangroves in Florida prevented US $1.5 billion in direct flood damages and protected over half a million people during Hurricane Irma in 2017, reducing damages by nearly 25% in counties with mangroves. After 7 years, all three of Florida’s mangrove species naturally re-established. Nature-based solutions minimize risk to coastal communities from storms and sea level rise, and improve habitats, recreation, beauty, and livelihoods. The intricate root system of mangroves also makes these forests attractive to fishes and other organisms seeking food and shelter from predators. These trees are able to grow in areas seldom inundated by tidal water. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Many fish feed in the mangrove forests, including snook (Centropomus undecimalis), gray or mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), schoolmaster snapper (Lutjanus apodus), tarpon, jack, sheepshead, red drum, hardhead silverside (Atherinomorus stipes), juvenile blue angelfish (Holocanthus bermudensis), juvenile porkfish (Anisotremus virginicus), lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus), great barracuda (Sphryaena barracuda), scrawled cowfish (Lactophrys quadricornis) and permit (Trachinotus falcatus), as well as shrimp and clams. Let me show you other interesting facts about mangrove trees below: Facts about Mangrove Trees 1: coastal areas. In deep south Florida and the Florida Keys, the tropical climate allows mangroves to grow larger due to being frost free. A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. They thrive in salty environments because they can obtain freshwater from saltwater. The bark is dark and scaly and the upper surface of the leaves is often covered with salt excreted by the plant. All three mangrove species flower in the spring and early summer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(2), 723–7. An important part of our ongoing efforts to restore natural habitat at Blowing Rocks Preserve is the restoration of red mangroves to the shoreline. Mangroves are trees or shrubs that live in seawater. Mangrove Tree Facts 1. Mangrove Swamp Facts. We’ve cleared mangrove forests and wetlands to make way for resorts, harbors, roads, city expansion, and industry -- losing all the benefits they provide to both humans and wildlif… Propagules fall from late summer through early autumn. The United States has roughly 2,500 square kilometers (about 1,500 square miles) of mangroves — an area about the size of Luxembourg — located almost entirely in southern Florida. Doyle, T. W., Girod, G. F., Books, M. A., & Geological, U. S. (n.d.). How will sea level rise affect the Florida Keys? Mangrove forests only grow at tropical and subtropical latitudes near the equator because they cannot withstand freezing temperatures. TNC continues protection and restoration efforts of our important forests, from the Panhandle to the Keys, on behalf of people and nature. Despite the intricacy, scientists have formulated several hypotheses of the effects of climate change on the mangroves of southern Florida. Mangroves help fight climate change — but they are far from immune to its effects. These trees also have small white flowers that are wind pollinated with 10-12 inch long pencil shaped seeds. doi:10.1073/pnas.1315800111, Service, N. O., Oceanic, N., Spring, S., Survey, K. G., Wetlands, N., Survey, U. S. G., … Agency, P. (2002). Mangroves also provide natural infrastructure and protection to nearby populated areas by preventing erosion and absorbing storm surge impacts during extreme weather events such as hurricanes. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Newfound Harbor Marine Institute: Mangroves, Indian River Lagoon Update/Summer 2001 Issue: More marshland now connected to lagoon, Newfound Harbor Marine Institute: Mangroves: Flora & Fauna, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-the-ipcc-underestimated-climate-change/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Florida_mangroves&oldid=988248252, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Apply risk-spreading strategies to address the uncertainties of climate change. Essential Facts About Mangroves Our mangroves are protected for good reason. Every acre we protect, every river mile restored, every species brought back from the brink, begins with you. This allows them to live in anaerobic conditions by providing gas exchange. Dec. 2012. It provides nursery grounds for young fish, crustaceans and mollusks, and for sport and commercial purposes. Biscayne Bay also has extensive mangroves, but the northern part of the Bay has been largely cleared of mangroves to make way for urban development. Ninety percent of the Florida mangroves are in southern Florida, in Collier, Lee, Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties. An ecoregion along the coasts of the Florida peninsula, and the Florida Keys. SUBSCRIBE! Geophysical Research Letters, 33(1), n/a–n/a. Mangroves line more than 1,800 miles of shoreline within Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Between 1870 and 2004, the current sea level rise has been approximately 8 inches total, or 1.46 mm/yr. Studies like these are important to demonstrate the value of natural climate solutions to encourage investment in nature along our shorelines. and foraging opportunities in mangrove roots. Mangroves are … An estimated 75% of the game fish and 90% of the commercial species in south Florida depend on the mangrove system. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report which was finalized in 2014 is now predicting 52–98 cm sea level rise by 2100. We published a scientific study in partnership with University of California Santa Cruz and RMS quantifying the effectiveness of mangroves in reducing flood risk to people and property. Many people visit the Florida Keys and admire the beautiful, clear water. http://bit.ly/PlanetDoc Full Documentaries every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday! Coastal Education and Research Foundation, Inc., 7(1), 151–165. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems, 25(2), 149–164. They occur in the area between high and low tide along the coast, estuaries and up rivers. Explore the latest thinking from our experts on some of the most significant challenges we face today, including climate change, food and water security, and city growth. |, Join the million supporters who stand with us in taking action for our planet, Get text updates from The Nature Conservancy*, [{"geoNavTitle":"Angola Botswana","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":[],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/angola-botswana/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Gabon","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["gab"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/gabon/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Kenya","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["ken"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/kenya/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Namibia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["nam"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/namibia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Seychelles","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["syc"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/seychelles/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"South Africa","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["zaf"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/south-africa/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Tanzania","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["tza"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/tanzania/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Zambia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["zmb"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/africa/zambia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Australia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["aus"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/australia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"China","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["chn"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/china/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Hong Kong","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["hkg"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/hong-kong/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Indonesia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/indonesia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Mongolia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["mng"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/mongolia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Myanmar","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["mmr"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/myanmar/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"New Zealand","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["nzl"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/new-zealand/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"The Pacific Islands","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":[],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/asia-pacific/the-pacific-islands/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Canada","geoLocationCountryCode":["can"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/canada/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Bahamas","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["bhs"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/bahamas/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Cuba","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["cub"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/cuba/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Dominican Republic","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["dom"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/dominican-republic/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Eastern Caribbean","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":[],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/eastern-caribbean/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Haiti","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/haiti/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Jamaica","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["jam"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/jamaica/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Puerto Rico","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":[],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/puerto-rico/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Virgin Islands","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["vir"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/caribbean/virgin-islands/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Europe","geoLocationCountryCode":[],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/europe/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"India","geoLocationCountryCode":["ind"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/india/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Argentina","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["arg"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/argentina/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Belize","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["blz"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/belize/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Bolivia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["bol"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/bolivia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Brazil","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["bra"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/brazil/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Chile","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["chl"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/chile/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Colombia","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["col"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/colombia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Costa Rica","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["cri"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/costa-rica/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Ecuador","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["ecu"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/ecuador/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"El Salvador ","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":[],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/el-salvador/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Guatemala","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["gtm"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/guatemala/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Honduras","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["hnd"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/honduras/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Mexico","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["mex"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/mexico/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Nicargua","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["nic"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/nicaragua/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Panama","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["pan"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/panama/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Peru","geoLocationStateCode":[],"geoLocationCountryCode":["per"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/latin-america/peru/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Alabama","geoLocationStateCode":["al"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/alabama/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Alaska","geoLocationStateCode":["ak"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/alaska/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Arizona","geoLocationStateCode":["az"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/arizona/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Arkansas","geoLocationStateCode":["ar"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/arkansas/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"California","geoLocationStateCode":["ca"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/california/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Colorado","geoLocationStateCode":["co"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/colorado/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Connecticut","geoLocationStateCode":["ct"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/connecticut/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Delaware","geoLocationStateCode":["de"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/delaware/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"District of Columbia","geoLocationStateCode":["dc"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/district-of-columbia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Florida","geoLocationStateCode":["fl"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/florida/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Georgia","geoLocationStateCode":["ga"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/georgia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Hawaii","geoLocationStateCode":["hi"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/hawaii/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Idaho","geoLocationStateCode":["id"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/idaho/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Illinois","geoLocationStateCode":["il"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/illinois/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Indiana","geoLocationStateCode":["in"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/indiana/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Iowa","geoLocationStateCode":["ia"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/iowa/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Kansas","geoLocationStateCode":["ks"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/kansas/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Kentucky","geoLocationStateCode":["ky"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/kentucky/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Louisiana","geoLocationStateCode":["la"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/louisiana/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Maine","geoLocationStateCode":["me"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/maine/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Maryland and D.C.","geoLocationStateCode":["md"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/maryland-dc/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Massachusetts","geoLocationStateCode":["ma"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/massachusetts/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Michigan","geoLocationStateCode":["mi"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/michigan/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Minnesota","geoLocationStateCode":["mn"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/minnesota/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Mississippi","geoLocationStateCode":["la"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/mississippi/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Missouri","geoLocationStateCode":["mo"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/missouri/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Montana","geoLocationStateCode":["mt"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/montana/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Nebraska","geoLocationStateCode":["ne"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/nebraska/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Nevada","geoLocationStateCode":["nv"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/nevada/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"New Hampshire","geoLocationStateCode":["nh"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/new-hampshire/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"New Jersey","geoLocationStateCode":["nj"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/new-jersey/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"New Mexico","geoLocationStateCode":["nm"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/new-mexico/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"New York","geoLocationStateCode":["ny"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/new-york/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"North Carolina","geoLocationStateCode":["nc"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/north-carolina/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"North Dakota","geoLocationStateCode":["nd"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/north-dakota/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Ohio","geoLocationStateCode":["oh"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/ohio/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Oklahoma","geoLocationStateCode":["ok"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/oklahoma/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Oregon","geoLocationStateCode":["or"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/oregon/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Pennsylvania","geoLocationStateCode":["pa"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/pennsylvania/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Rhode Island","geoLocationStateCode":["ri"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/rhode-island/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"South Carolina","geoLocationStateCode":["sc"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/south-carolina/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"South Dakota","geoLocationStateCode":["sd"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/south-dakota/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Tennessee","geoLocationStateCode":["tn"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/tennessee/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Texas","geoLocationStateCode":["tx"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/texas/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Utah","geoLocationStateCode":["ut"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/utah/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Vermont","geoLocationStateCode":["vt"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/vermont/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Virginia","geoLocationStateCode":["va"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/virginia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Washington","geoLocationStateCode":["wa"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/washington/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"West Virginia","geoLocationStateCode":["wv"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/west-virginia/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Wisconsin","geoLocationStateCode":["wi"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/wisconsin/","geoNavTarget":"_self"},{"geoNavTitle":"Wyoming","geoLocationStateCode":["wy"],"geoLocationCountryCode":["usa"],"geoNavLink":"https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/where-we-work/united-states/wyoming/","geoNavTarget":"_self"}].

Acetylcholine Cardiac Effects, Best Stain Block Paint, Smartdesk 2 Home Office Assembly, 1956 Ford Crown Victoria'' - Craigslist, Engine Power Is Reduced Chevy Cruze, Lockup Extended Stay: Savannahconcrete Sealer For Fireplace, First Tennessee Platinum Premier Visa,